These routines are defined in different files along with one or several other classes, but are not actually attached to any particular class or role.

routine EVAL§

proto EVAL($code where Blob|Cool|CallableStr() :$lang = 'Raku',
                PseudoStash :$contextStr() :$filenameBool() :$check*%_)
multi EVAL($codeStr :$lang where { ($lang // ''eq 'Perl5' },
                PseudoStash :$contextStr() :$filename:$check)

This routine executes at runtime a fragment of code, $code, of a given language, $lang, which defaults to Raku.

It coerces Cool $code to Str. If $code is a Blob, it'll be processed using the same encoding as the $lang compiler would: for Raku $lang, uses utf-8; for Perl5, processes using the same rules as Perl.

This works as-is with a literal string parameter. More complex input, such as a variable or string with embedded code, is illegal by default. This can be overridden in any of several ways:

use MONKEY;             # shortcut that turns on all MONKEY pragmas 
use Test;
my $init = 0;
my $diff = 10;
my Str $changer = '$init += ' ~ $diff# contains a Str object with value '$init += 10' 
# any of the above allows: 
EVAL $changer;
EVAL $changer;
say $init;                         # OUTPUT: «20␤»

In case the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma is not activated, the compiler will complain with a EVAL is a very dangerous function!!! exception. And it is essentially right, since that will run arbitrary code with the same permissions as the program. You should take care of cleaning the code that is going to pass through EVAL if you activate the MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL pragma.

Please note that you can interpolate to create routine names using quotation, as can be seen in this example or other ways to interpolate to create identifier names. This only works, however, for already declared functions and other objects and is thus safer to use.

Symbols in the current lexical scope are visible to code in an EVAL.

my $answer = 42;
EVAL 'say $answer;';    # OUTPUT: «42␤»

However, since the set of symbols in a lexical scope is immutable after compile time, an EVAL can never introduce symbols into the surrounding scope.

EVAL 'my $lives = 9'say $lives;   # error, $lives not declared 

Furthermore, the EVAL is evaluated in the current package:

module M {
    EVAL 'our $answer = 42'
say $M::answer;         # OUTPUT: «42␤»

And also in the current language, meaning any added syntax is available:

sub infix:<mean>(*@ais assoc<list> {
    @a.sum / @a.elems
EVAL 'say 2 mean 6 mean 4';     # OUTPUT: «4␤»

An EVAL statement evaluates to the result of the last statement:

sub infix:<mean>(*@ais assoc<list> {
    @a.sum / @a.elems
say EVAL 'say 1; 2 mean 6 mean 4';         # OUTPUT: «1␤4␤» 

EVAL is also a gateway for executing code in other languages:

EVAL "use v5.20; say 'Hello from perl!'":lang<Perl5>;

You need to have Inline::Perl5 for this to work correctly.

More languages may be supported with additional modules which may be found from the Raku Modules Directory.

If the optional $filename parameter is given, the $?FILE variable is set to its value. Otherwise $?FILE is set to a unique and generated file name.

EVAL 'say $?FILE';                              # OUTPUT: «/tmp/EVAL_0␤» 
EVAL 'say $?FILE'filename => '/my-eval-code'# OUTPUT: «/my-eval-code␤» 

If the optional $check parameter is True, $code is processed by the $lang compiler but is not actually run. For Raku, BEGIN, and CHECK blocks are run. The EVAL routine then returns Nil if compilation was successful, otherwise an exception is thrown.


sub EVALFILE($filename where Blob|Cool:$lang = 'Raku':$check)

Slurps the specified file and evaluates it. Behaves the same way as EVAL with regard to Blob decoding, scoping, the $lang parameter and the $check parameter. Evaluates to the value produced by the final statement in the file when $check is not True.

EVALFILE "foo.raku";

sub repl§

Note: repl was introduced in release 2021.06 of the Rakudo compiler.

sub repl()

Pauses execution and enters a REPL (read-eval-print loop) in the current context. This REPL is exactly like the one created when you run raku without any arguments except that you can access/modify the program's current context (such as lexical variables).

For example, if you run this code:

my $name = "Alice";
say "Hello, $name";
say "Goodbye, $name"

then you'll get the output Hello, Alice and then enter a REPL session (before any output with "goodbye" is printed). Your REPL session could go as follows:

Type 'exit' to leave
[0] > $name
[1] > $name = "Bob"
[2] > exit

After exiting the REPL session, Raku will resume running the program; during this run, any changes you made in the REPL session will still be in effect. Thus, after the session above, you'd get the output Goodbye, Bob rather than Goodbye, Alice as you would have without the REPL session.

sub get§

multi get  (IO::Handle:D $fh = $*ARGFILES{ $fh.get  }

This routine is a wrapper for the method of the same name in IO::Handle. If no Handle is specified, defaults to $*ARGFILES.

sub getc§

multi getc  (IO::Handle:D $fh = $*ARGFILES{ $fh.getc  }

This routine is a wrapper for the method of the same name in IO::Handle>. If no Handle is specified, defaults to $*ARGFILES.

sub mkdir§

sub    mkdir(IO() $pathInt() $mode = 0o777 --> IO::Path:D)

Creates a new directory; see mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created.

Also creates parent directories, as needed (similar to *nix utility mkdir with -p option); that is, mkdir "foo/bar/ber/meow" will create foo, foo/bar, and foo/bar/ber directories if they do not exist, as well as foo/bar/ber/meow.

sub chdir§

sub chdir(IO() $path:$d = True:$r:$w:$x --> IO::Path:D)

Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir).

Returns IO::Path representing new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

  • :d — check .d returns True

  • :r — check .r returns True

  • :w — check .w returns True

  • :x — check .x returns True

By default, only :d test is performed.

chdir         '/tmp'# change $*CWD to '/tmp' and check its .d is True 
chdir :r:w'/tmp'# … check its .r and .w are True 
chdir '/not-there';   # returns Failure 

Note that the following construct is a mistake:

my $*CWD = chdir '/tmp/';

Use indir instead.

sub &*chdir§

PROCESS::<&chdir> = sub (IO() $path --> IO::Path:D{ }

Changes value of $*CWD variable to the provided $path and sets the process's current directory to the value of $path.absolute. NOTE: that in most cases, you want to use chdir routine instead.

Returns an IO::Path representing the new $*CWD on success. On failure, returns Failure and leaves $*CWD untouched. The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object.

Note that unlike regular chdir, there are no arguments to specify which file tests to perform.

&*chdir('/tmp');  # change $*CWD and process's current directory to '/tmp' 
&*chdir('/not-there'); # returns Failure 

Note that the following construct is a mistake:

my $*CWD = &*chdir('/tmp');

Use the following, instead; or see indir if you do not need to change process's current directory:

temp $*CWD;

sub chmod§

sub chmod(Int() $mode*@filenames --> List)

Coerces all @filenames to IO::Path and calls IO::Path.chmod with $mode on them. Returns a List containing a subset of @filenames for which chmod was successfully executed.

chmod 0o755, <myfile1  myfile2># make two files executable by the owner

sub indir§

sub indir(IO() $path&code:$d = True:$r:$w:$x)

Takes Callable &code and executes it after locally (to &code) changing $*CWD variable to an IO::Path object based on $path, optionally ensuring the new path passes several file tests. If $path is relative, it will be turned into an absolute path, even if an IO::Path object was given. NOTE: that this routine does NOT alter the process's current directory (see &*chdir). The $*CWD outside of the &code is not affected, even if &code explicitly assigns a new value to $*CWD.

Returns the value returned by the &code call on success. On failure to successfully change $*CWD, returns Failure. WARNING: keep in mind that lazily evaluated things might end up NOT having the $*CWD set by indir in their dynamic scope by the time they're actually evaluated. Either ensure the generators have their $*CWD set or eagerly evaluate them before returning the results from indir:

say indir("/tmp"{
    gather { take ".".IO }
}.CWD# OUTPUT: «(/home/camelia)␤» 
say indir("/tmp"{
    eager gather { take ".".IO }
}.CWD# OUTPUT: «(/tmp)␤» 
say indir("/tmp"{
    my $cwd = $*CWD;
    gather { temp $*CWD = $cwdtake ".".IO }
}.CWD# OUTPUT: «(/tmp)␤»

The routine's $path argument can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. The available file tests are:

  • :d — check .d returns True

  • :r — check .r returns True

  • :w — check .w returns True

  • :x — check .x returns True

By default, only :d test is performed.

say $*CWD;                   # OUTPUT: «"/home/camelia".IO␤» 
indir '/tmp'{ say $*CWD }# OUTPUT: «"/tmp".IO␤» 
say $*CWD;                   # OUTPUT: «"/home/camelia".IO␤» 
indir '/not-there'{;};     # returns Failure; path does not exist

sub print§

multi print(**@args --> True)
multi print(Junction:D --> True)

Prints the given text on standard output (the $*OUT filehandle), coercing non-Str objects to Str by calling .Str method. Junction arguments autothread and the order of printed strings is not guaranteed.

print "Hi there!\n";       # OUTPUT: «Hi there!␤» 
print "Hi there!";         # OUTPUT: «Hi there!» 
print [123];           # OUTPUT: «1 2 3» 
print "Hello" | "Goodbye"# OUTPUT: «HelloGoodbye»

To print text and include the trailing newline, use put.

sub put§

multi put()
multi put(**@args --> True)
multi put(Junction:D --> True)
multi put(Str:D \x)
multi put(\x)

Same as print, except it uses print-nl (which prints a newline, by default) at the end. Junction arguments autothread and the order of printed strings is not guaranteed.

put "Hi there!\n";   # OUTPUT: «Hi there!␤␤» 
put "Hi there!";     # OUTPUT: «Hi there!␤» 
put [123];       # OUTPUT: «1 2 3␤» 
put "Hello" | "Goodbye"# OUTPUT: «Hello␤Goodbye␤»

By itself, put() will print a new line

put "Hey"put(); put("Hey"); # OUTPUT: «Hey␤␤Hey␤»

but please note that we have used parentheses after put. Without these parentheses, it will throw an exception (with version 6.d and after). It will also raise an exception if it's used that way before for; use the method form .put instead.

.put for <1 2 3>;             # OUTPUT: «1␤2␤3␤»

sub say§

multi say(**@args --> True)

Prints the "gist" of given objects; it will always invoke .gist in the case the object is a subclass of Str. Same as put, except it uses .gist method to obtain string representation of the object; as in the case of put, it will also autothread for Junctions.

NOTE: the .gist method of some objects, such as Lists, returns only partial information about the object (hence the "gist"). If you mean to print textual information, you most likely want to use put instead.

say Range;        # OUTPUT: «(Range)␤» 
say class Foo {}# OUTPUT: «(Foo)␤» 
say 'I ♥ Raku';   # OUTPUT: «I ♥ Raku␤» 
say 1..Inf;       # OUTPUT: «1..Inf␤»

routine note§

method note(Mu: -->Bool:D)
multi  note(            --> Bool:D)
multi  note(Str:D $note --> Bool:D)
multi  note(**@args     --> Bool:D)

Like say (in the sense it will invoke the .gist method of the printed object), except it prints output to $*ERR handle (STDERR). If no arguments are given to subroutine forms, will use string "Noted".

note;       # STDERR OUTPUT: «Noted␤» 
note 'foo'# STDERR OUTPUT: «foo␤» 
note 1..*;  # STDERR OUTPUT: «1..Inf␤» 

This command will also autothread on Junctions, and is guaranteed to call gist on the object if it's a subclass of Str.

sub prompt§

multi prompt()
multi prompt($msg)

Prints $msg to $*OUT handle if $msg was provided, then gets a line of input from $*IN handle. By default, this is equivalent to printing $msg to STDOUT, reading a line from STDIN, removing the trailing new line, and returning the resultant string. As of Rakudo 2018.08, prompt will create allomorphs for numeric values, equivalent to calling val prompt.

my $name = prompt "What's your name? ";
say "Hi, $name! Nice to meet you!";
my $age = prompt("Say your age (number)");
my Int $years = $age;
my Str $age-badge = $age;

In the code above, $age will be duck-typed to the allomorph IntStr if it's entered correctly as a number.

sub open§

multi open(IO() $path|args --> IO::Handle:D)

Creates a handle with the given $path, and calls, passing any of the remaining arguments to it. Note that IO::Path type provides numerous methods for reading and writing from files, so in many common cases you do not need to open files or deal with IO::Handle type directly.

my $fh = open :w'/tmp/some-file.txt';
$fh.say: 'I ♥ writing Raku code';
$fh = open '/tmp/some-file.txt';
print $fh.readchars: 4;
$ 7SeekFromCurrent;
say $fh.readchars: 4;
# OUTPUT: «I ♥ Raku␤» 

sub slurp§

multi slurp(IO::Handle:D $fh = $*ARGFILES|c)
multi slurp(IO() $path|c)

Slurps the contents of the entire file into a Str (or Buf if :bin). Accepts :bin and :enc optional named parameters, with the same meaning as open(); possible encodings are the same as in all the other IO methods and are listed in encoding routine. The routine will fail if the file does not exist, or is a directory. Without any arguments, sub slurp operates on $*ARGFILES, which defaults to $*IN in the absence of any filenames.

# read entire file as (Unicode) Str 
my $text_contents   = slurp "path/to/file";
# read entire file as Latin1 Str 
my $text_contents   = slurp "path/to/file"enc => "latin1";
# read entire file as Buf 
my $binary_contents = slurp "path/to/file":bin;

sub spurt§

multi spurt(IO() $path|c)

The $path can be any object with an IO method that returns an IO::Path object. Calls IO::Path.spurt on the $path, forwarding any of the remaining arguments.


  • :enc

The encoding with which the contents will be written.

  • :append

Boolean indicating whether to append to a (potentially) existing file. If the file did not exist yet, it will be created. Defaults to False.

  • :createonly

Boolean indicating whether to fail if the file already exists. Defaults to False.


# write directly to a file 
spurt 'path/to/file''default text, directly written';
# write directly with a non-Unicode encoding 
spurt 'path/to/latin1_file''latin1 text: äöüß':enc<latin1>;
spurt 'file-that-already-exists''some text';           # overwrite file's contents: 
spurt 'file-that-already-exists'' new text':append;  # append to file's contents: 
say slurp 'file-that-already-exists';                    # OUTPUT: «some text new text␤» 
# fail when writing to a pre-existing file 
spurt 'file-that-already-exists''new text':createonly;
# OUTPUT: «Failed to open file /home/camelia/file-that-already-exists: file already exists …» 
multi spurt(IO() $path)

As of the 2020.12 release of the Rakudo compiler, it is also possible to call the spurt subroutine without any data. This will either create an empty file, or will truncate any existing file at the given path.

# create an empty file / truncate a file 
spurt 'path/to/file';

sub run§

sub run(
    *@args ($*@),
    :$in = '-',
    :$out = '-',
    :$err = '-',
    Bool :$bin = False,
    Bool :$chomp = True,
    Bool :$merge = False,
    Str:D :$enc = 'UTF-8',
    Str:D :$nl = "\n",
    :$cwd = $*CWD,
    Hash() :$env = %*ENV,
    :$win-verbatim-args = False
--> Proc:D)

Runs an external command without involving a shell and returns a Proc object. By default, the external command will print to standard output and error, and read from standard input.

run 'touch''--''*.txt'# Create a file named “*.txt” 
run <rm -- *.txt># Another way to use run, using word quoting for the 
                   # arguments

If you want to pass some variables you can still use < >, but try to avoid using « » as it will do word splitting if you forget to quote variables:

my $file = --my arbitrary filename;
run touch--$file;  # RIGHT 
run <touch -->$file;     # RIGHT 
run «touch -- "$file"»;    # RIGHT but WRONG if you forget quotes 
run «touch -- $file»;      # WRONG; touches ‘--my’, ‘arbitrary’ and ‘filename’ 
run touch$file;        # WRONG; error from `touch` 
run «touch "$file"»;       # WRONG; error from `touch` 

Note that -- is required for many programs to disambiguate between command-line arguments and filenames that begin with hyphens.

A sunk Proc object for a process that exited unsuccessfully will throw. If you wish to ignore such failures, simply use run in non-sink context:

run 'false';     # SUNK! Will throw 
run('false').so# OK. Evaluates Proc in Bool context; no sinking

If you want to capture standard output or error instead of having it printed directly you can use the :out or :err arguments, which will make them available using their respective methods: Proc.out and Proc.err.

my $proc = run 'echo''Raku is Great!':out:err;
$proc.out.slurp(:close).say# OUTPUT: «Raku is Great!␤» 
$proc.err.slurp(:close).say# OUTPUT: «␤»

You can use these arguments to redirect them to a filehandle, thus creating a kind of pipe:

my $ls-alt-handle = open :w'/tmp/cur-dir-ls-alt.txt';
my $proc = run "ls""-alt":out($ls-alt-handle);
# (The file will contain the output of the ls -alt command)

These argument are quite flexible and admit, for instance, handles to redirect them. See Proc and Proc::Async for more details.

See also new and spawn for more examples and explanation of all arguments.

sub shell§

multi shell($cmd:$in = '-':$out = '-':$err = '-',
                Bool :$binBool :$chomp = TrueBool :$merge,
                Str :$encStr:D :$nl = "\n":$cwd = $*CWD:$env)

Runs a command through the system shell, which defaults to %*ENV<ComSpec> /c in Windows, /bin/sh -c otherwise. All shell metacharacters are interpreted by the shell, including pipes, redirects, environment variable substitutions and so on. Shell escapes are a severe security concern and can cause confusion with unusual file names. Use run if you want to be safe.

The return value is of type Proc.

shell 'ls -lR | gzip -9 > ls-lR.gz';

See Proc for more details, for example on how to capture output.

routine unpolar§

method unpolar(Real $angle)
multi  unpolar(Real $magReal $angle)

Returns a Complex with the coordinates corresponding to the angle in radians and magnitude corresponding to the object value or $mag in the case it's being used as a sub

say 1.unpolar(⅓*pi);
# OUTPUT: «0.5000000000000001+0.8660254037844386i␤»

routine printf§

multi printf(Cool:D $format*@args)

Produces output according to a format. The format used is the invocant (if called in method form) or the first argument (if called as a routine). The rest of the arguments will be substituted in the format following the format conventions. See sprintf for details on acceptable format directives.

"%s is %s".printf("þor""mighty");    # OUTPUT: «þor is mighty» 
printf"%s is %s""þor""mighty");  # OUTPUT: «þor is mighty»

On Junctions, it will also autothread, without a guaranteed order.

printf"%.2f ", ⅓ | ¼ | ¾ ); # OUTPUT: «0.33 0.25 0.75 »

routine sprintf§

multi sprintf(Cool:D $format*@args)

Returns a string according to a format as described below. The format used is the invocant (if called in method form) or the first argument (if called as a routine).

sprintf"%s the %d%s""þor"1"st").put# OUTPUT: «þor the 1st␤» 
sprintf"%s is %s""þor""mighty").put;   # OUTPUT: «þor is mighty␤» 
"%s's weight is %.2f %s".sprintf"Mjölnir"3.3392"kg").put;
# OUTPUT: «Mjölnir's weight is 3.34 kg␤» 
# OUTPUT: «Mjölnir's weight is 3.34 kg␤»

This function is mostly identical to the C library's sprintf and printf functions. The only difference between the two functions is that sprintf returns a string while the printf function writes to a filehandle. sprintf returns a Str, not a literal.

The $format is scanned for % characters. Any % introduces a format token. Directives guide the use (if any) of the arguments. When a directive other than % is used, it indicates how the next argument passed is to be formatted into the string to be created. Parameter indexes may also be used in the format tokens. They take the form N$ and are explained in more detail below.

The $format may be defined enclosed in single or double quotes. The double-quoted $format string is interpolated before being scanned and any embedded string whose interpolated value contains a % character will cause an exception. For example:

my $prod = "Ab-%x-42";
my $cost = "30";
sprintf("Product $prod; cost: \$%d"$cost).put;
# OUTPUT: «Your printf-style directives specify 2 arguments, but 1 argument was supplied␤» 
          «  in block <unit> at <unknown file> line 1␤»

When handling unknown input you should avoid using such syntax by putting all variables in the *@args array and have one % for each in $format. If you need to include a $ symbol in the format string (even as a parameter index) either escape it or use the single-quoted form. For example, either of the following forms works without error:

sprintf("2 x \$20 = \$%d"2*20).put# OUTPUT: «2 x $20 = $40␤» 
sprintf('2 x $20 = $%d'2*20).put;   # OUTPUT: «2 x $20 = $40␤» 

In summary, unless you need something very special, you will have fewer unexpected problems by using the single-quoted format string and not using interpolated strings inside the format string.



%a literal percent sign
ca character with the given codepoint
sa string
da signed integer, in decimal
uan unsigned integer, in decimal
oan unsigned integer, in octal
xan unsigned integer, in hexadecimal
ea floating-point number, in scientific notation
fa floating-point number, in fixed decimal notation
ga floating-point number, in %e or %f notation
Xlike x, but using uppercase letters
Elike e, but using an uppercase "E"
Glike g, but with an uppercase "E" (if applicable)
ban unsigned integer, in binary


ia synonym for %d
Da synonym for %ld
Ua synonym for %lu
Oa synonym for %lo
Fa synonym for %f


Modifiers change the meaning of format directives, but are largely no-ops (the semantics are still being determined).

hinterpret integer as native "short" (typically int16)
NYIlinterpret integer as native "long" (typically int32 or int64)
NYIllinterpret integer as native "long long" (typically int64)
NYILinterpret integer as native "long long" (typically uint64)
NYIqinterpret integer as native "quads" (typically int64 or larger)

Between the % and the format letter, you may specify several additional attributes controlling the interpretation of the format. In order, these are:

NYI Format parameter index using the '$' symbol§

An explicit format parameter index (ranging from 1 to N args) before the directive, such as %2$d. By default, sprintf will format the next unused argument in the list, but the parameter index allows you to take the arguments out of order (note single quotes are required unless you escape the $):

Without index:§

sprintf '%d %d'1234;      # OUTPUT: «12 34␤» 
sprintf '%d %d %d'123;  # OUTPUT: «1 2 3␤» 

NYI With index:§

The first example works as we expect it to when we index all directives.

sprintf '%2$d %1$d'1234;      # OUTPUT: «34 12␤» 

But notice the effect when mixing indexed and non-indexed directives in the second example (be careful what you ask for). The second, non-indexed directive gets the first argument, but it is also specifically requested in the last directive:

sprintf '%3$d %d %1$d'123;  # OUTPUT: «3 1 1␤» 


One or more of:

spaceprefix non-negative number with a space
+prefix non-negative number with a plus sign
-left-justify within the field
0use leading zeros, not spaces, for required padding
#ensure the leading "0" for any octal, prefix non-zero hexadecimal with "0x" or "0X", prefix non-zero binary with "0b" or "0B"
vNYI vector flag (used only with directive "d"), see description below

For example:

sprintf '<% d>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «< 12>␤» 
sprintf '<% d>',   0;   # OUTPUT: «< 0>"» 
sprintf '<% d>'-12;   # OUTPUT: «<-12>␤» 
sprintf '<%+d>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «<+12>␤» 
sprintf '<%+d>',   0;   # OUTPUT: «<+0>"» 
sprintf '<%+d>'-12;   # OUTPUT: «<-12>␤» 
sprintf '<%6s>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «<    12>␤» 
sprintf '<%-6s>'12;   # OUTPUT: «<12    >␤» 
sprintf '<%06s>'12;   # OUTPUT: «<000012>␤» 
sprintf '<%#o>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «<014>␤» 
sprintf '<%#x>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «<0xc>␤» 
sprintf '<%#X>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «<0XC>␤» 
sprintf '<%#b>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «<0b1100>␤» 
sprintf '<%#B>',  12;   # OUTPUT: «<0B1100>␤»

When a space and a plus sign are given as the flags at once, the space is ignored:

sprintf '<%+ d>'12;   # OUTPUT: «<+12>␤» 
sprintf '<% +d>'12;   # OUTPUT: «<+12>␤»

When the # flag and a precision are given in the %o conversion, the necessary number of 0s is added at the beginning. If the value of the number is 0 and the precision is 0, it will output nothing; precision 0 or smaller than the actual number of elements will return the number with 0 to the left:

say sprintf '<%#.5o>'0o12;     # OUTPUT: «<00012>␤» 
say sprintf '<%#.5o>'0o12345;  # OUTPUT: «<012345>␤» 
say sprintf '<%#.0o>'0;        # OUTPUT: «<>␤» zero precision and value 0 
                                 #               results in no output! 
say sprintf '<%#.0o>'0o1       # OUTPUT: «<01>␤»

Vector flag 'v'§

This special flag (v, followed by directive d) tells Raku to interpret the supplied string as a vector of integers, one for each character in the string (the `ord` routine is used for the conversion to an integer). Raku applies the format to each integer in turn, then joins the resulting strings with a separator (a dot '.', by default). This can be useful for displaying ordinal values of characters in arbitrary strings:

NYI sprintf "%vd""AB\x[100]";           # OUTPUT: «65.66.256␤» 

You can also explicitly specify the argument number to use for the separator string by using an asterisk with a parameter index (e.g., *2$v); for example:

NYI sprintf '%*4$vX %*4$vX %*4$vX',       # 3 IPv6 addresses 
        @addr[1..3], ":";

Width (minimum)§

Arguments are usually formatted by default to be only as wide as required to display the given value. You specify a minimum width that can override the default width by putting a number here, or get the desired width from the next argument (with * ) or from a specified argument (e.g., with *2$):

 sprintf "<%s>""a";           # OUTPUT: «<a>␤» 
 sprintf "<%6s>""a";          # OUTPUT: «<     a>␤» 
 sprintf "<%*s>"6"a";       # OUTPUT: «<     a>␤» 
 NYI sprintf '<%*2$s>'"a"6# OUTPUT: «<     a>␤» 
 sprintf "<%2s>""long";       # OUTPUT: «<long>␤»   (does not truncate) 

In all cases, the specified width will be increased as necessary to accommodate the given integral numerical value or string. If a field width obtained through * is negative, it has the same effect as the - flag: left-justification.

Precision, or maximum width§

You can specify a precision (for numeric conversions) or a maximum width (for string conversions) by specifying a . followed by a number. For floating-point formats, except g and G, this specifies how many places right of the decimal point to show (the default being 6). For example:

# These examples are subject to system-specific variation. 
sprintf '<%f>'1;    # OUTPUT: «"<1.000000>"␤» 
sprintf '<%.1f>'1;  # OUTPUT: «"<1.0>"␤» 
sprintf '<%.0f>'1;  # OUTPUT: «"<1>"␤» 
sprintf '<%e>'10;   # OUTPUT: «"<1.000000e+01>"␤» 
sprintf '<%.1e>'10# OUTPUT: «"<1.0e+01>"␤»

For "g" and "G", this specifies the maximum number of digits to show, including those prior to the decimal point and those after it; for example:

# These examples are subject to system-specific variation. 
sprintf '<%g>'1;        # OUTPUT: «<1>␤» 
sprintf '<%.10g>'1;     # OUTPUT: «<1>␤» 
sprintf '<%g>'100;      # OUTPUT: «<100>␤» 
sprintf '<%.1g>'100;    # OUTPUT: «<1e+02>␤» 
sprintf '<%.2g>'100.01# OUTPUT: «<1e+02>␤» 
sprintf '<%.5g>'100.01# OUTPUT: «<100.01>␤» 
sprintf '<%.4g>'100.01# OUTPUT: «<100>␤»

For integer conversions, specifying a precision implies the output of the number itself should be zero-padded to this width (where the 0 flag is ignored):

(Note that this feature currently works for unsigned integer conversions, but not for signed integer.)

sprintf '<%.6d>'1;         # OUTPUT: «<000001>␤» 
NYI sprintf '<%+.6d>'1;    # OUTPUT: «<+000001>␤» 
NYI sprintf '<%-10.6d>'1;  # OUTPUT: «<000001    >␤» 
sprintf '<%10.6d>'1;       # OUTPUT: «<    000001>␤» 
NYI sprintf '<%010.6d>'1;  # OUTPUT: «<    000001>␤» 
NYI sprintf '<%+10.6d>'1;  # OUTPUT: «<   +000001>␤» 
sprintf '<%.6x>'1;         # OUTPUT: «<000001>␤» 
sprintf '<%#.6x>'1;        # OUTPUT: «<0x000001>␤» 
sprintf '<%-10.6x>'1;      # OUTPUT: «<000001    >␤» 
sprintf '<%10.6x>'1;       # OUTPUT: «<    000001>␤» 
sprintf '<%010.6x>'1;      # OUTPUT: «<    000001>␤» 
sprintf '<%#10.6x>'1;      # OUTPUT: «<  0x000001>␤» 

For string conversions, specifying a precision truncates the string to fit the specified width:

sprintf '<%.5s>'"truncated";   # OUTPUT: «<trunc>␤» 
sprintf '<%10.5s>'"truncated"# OUTPUT: «<     trunc>␤»

You can also get the precision from the next argument using .*, or from a specified argument (e.g., with .*2$):

sprintf '<%.6x>'1;           # OUTPUT: «<000001>␤» 
sprintf '<%.*x>'61;        # OUTPUT: «<000001>␤» 
NYI sprintf '<%.*2$x>'16;  # OUTPUT: «<000001>␤» 
NYI sprintf '<%6.*2$x>'14# OUTPUT: «<  0001>␤» 

If a precision obtained through * is negative, it counts as having no precision at all:

sprintf '<%.*s>',  7"string";   # OUTPUT: «<string>␤» 
sprintf '<%.*s>',  3"string";   # OUTPUT: «<str>␤» 
sprintf '<%.*s>',  0"string";   # OUTPUT: «<>␤» 
sprintf '<%.*s>'-1"string";   # OUTPUT: «<string>␤» 
sprintf '<%.*d>',  10;          # OUTPUT: «<0>␤» 
sprintf '<%.*d>',  00;          # OUTPUT: «<>␤» 
sprintf '<%.*d>'-10;          # OUTPUT: «<0>␤»


For numeric conversions, you can specify the size to interpret the number as using l, h, V, q, L, or ll. For integer conversions (d u o x X b i D U O), numbers are usually assumed to be whatever the default integer size is on your platform (usually 32 or 64 bits), but you can override this to use instead one of the standard C types, as supported by the compiler used to build Raku:

(Note: None of the following have been implemented.)

hhinterpret integer as C type "char" or "unsigned char"
hinterpret integer as C type "short" or "unsigned short"
jinterpret integer as C type "intmax_t", only with a C99 compiler (unportable)
linterpret integer as C type "long" or "unsigned long"
q, L, or llinterpret integer as C type "long long", "unsigned long long", or "quad" (typically 64-bit integers)
tinterpret integer as C type "ptrdiff_t"
zinterpret integer as C type "size_t"

Order of arguments§

Normally, sprintf takes the next unused argument as the value to format for each format specification. If the format specification uses * to require additional arguments, these are consumed from the argument list in the order they appear in the format specification before the value to format. Where an argument is specified by an explicit index, this does not affect the normal order for the arguments, even when the explicitly specified index would have been the next argument.


my $a = 5my $b = 2my $c = 'net';
sprintf "<%*.*s>"$a$b$c# OUTPUT: «<   ne>␤»

uses $a for the width, $b for the precision, and $c as the value to format; while:

NYI sprintf '<%*1$.*s>'$a$b;

would use $a for the width and precision and $b as the value to format.

Here are some more examples; be aware that when using an explicit index, the $ will need escaping if the format string is double-quoted:

sprintf "%2\$d %d\n",      1234;         # OUTPUT: «34 12␤␤» 
sprintf "%2\$d %d %d\n",   1234;         # OUTPUT: «34 12 34␤␤» 
sprintf "%3\$d %d %d\n",   123456;     # OUTPUT: «56 12 34␤␤» 
NYI sprintf "%2\$*3\$d %d\n",  1234,  3# OUTPUT: « 34 12␤␤» 
NYI sprintf "%*1\$.*f\n",       4,  510# OUTPUT: «5.0000␤␤» 

Other examples:

NYI sprintf "%ld a big number"4294967295;
NYI sprintf "%%lld a bigger number"4294967296;
sprintf('%c'97);                  # OUTPUT: «a␤» 
sprintf("%.2f"1.969);             # OUTPUT: «1.97␤» 
sprintf("%+.3f"3.141592);         # OUTPUT: «+3.142␤» 
sprintf('%2$d %1$d'1234);       # OUTPUT: «34 12␤» 
sprintf("%x"255);                 # OUTPUT: «ff␤» 

Special case: sprintf("<b>%s</b>\n", "Raku") will not work, but one of the following will:

sprintf Q:b "<b>%s</b>\n",  "Raku"# OUTPUT: «<b>Raku</b>␤␤» 
sprintf     "<b>\%s</b>\n""Raku"# OUTPUT: «<b>Raku</b>␤␤» 
sprintf     "<b>%s\</b>\n""Raku"# OUTPUT: «<b>Raku</b>␤␤» 

sub flat§

multi flat(**@list)
multi flat(Iterable \a)

Constructs a list which contains any arguments provided, and returns the result of calling the .flat method (inherited from Any) on that list or Iterable:

say flat 1, (2, (34), $(56)); # OUTPUT: «(1 2 3 4 (5 6))␤»

routine unique§

multi unique(+values|c)

Returns a sequence of unique values from the invocant/argument list, such that only the first occurrence of each duplicated value remains in the result list. unique uses the semantics of the === operator to decide whether two objects are the same, unless the optional :with parameter is specified with another comparator. The order of the original list is preserved even as duplicates are removed.


say <a a b b b c c>.unique;   # OUTPUT: «(a b c)␤» 
say <a b b c c b a>.unique;   # OUTPUT: «(a b c)␤»

(Use squish instead if you know the input is sorted such that identical objects are adjacent.)

The optional :as parameter allows you to normalize/canonicalize the elements before unique-ing. The values are transformed for the purposes of comparison, but it's still the original values that make it to the result list; however, only the first occurrence will show up in that list:


say <a A B b c b C>.unique(:as(&lc))      # OUTPUT: «(a B c)␤»

One can also specify the comparator with the optional :with parameter. For instance if one wants a list of unique hashes, one could use the eqv comparator.


my @list = %(=> 42), %(=> 13), %(=> 42);
say @list.unique(:with(&[eqv]))           # OUTPUT: «({a => 42} {b => 13})␤»

Note: since :with Callable has to be tried with all the items in the list, this makes unique follow a path with much higher algorithmic complexity. You should try to use the :as argument instead, whenever possible.

routine repeated§

multi repeated(+values|c)

This returns a sequence of repeated values from the invocant/argument list. It takes the same parameters as unique, but instead of passing through any elements when they're first seen, they're only passed through as soon as they're seen for the second time (or more).


say <a a b b b c c>.repeated;                   # OUTPUT: «(a b b c)␤» 
say <a b b c c b a>.repeated;                   # OUTPUT: «(b c b a)␤» 
say <a A B b c b C>.repeated(:as(&lc));         # OUTPUT: «(A b b C)␤» 
my @list = %(=> 42), %(=> 13), %(=> 42);
say @list.repeated(:with(&[eqv]))               # OUTPUT: «({a => 42})␤»

As in the case of unique the associative argument :as takes a Callable that normalizes the element before comparison, and :with takes a the equality comparison function that is going to be used.

routine squish§

sub squish+values|c)

Returns a sequence of values from the invocant/argument list where runs of one or more values are replaced with only the first instance. Like unique, squish uses the semantics of the === operator to decide whether two objects are the same. Unlike unique, this function only removes adjacent duplicates; identical values further apart are still kept. The order of the original list is preserved even as duplicates are removed.


say <a a b b b c c>.squish# OUTPUT: «(a b c)␤» 
say <a b b c c b a>.squish# OUTPUT: «(a b c b a)␤»

The optional :as parameter, just like with unique, allows values to be temporarily transformed before comparison.

The optional :with parameter is used to set an appropriate comparison operator:

say [42"42"].squish;                      # OUTPUT: «(42 42)␤» 
# Note that the second item in the result is still Str 
say [42"42"].squish(with => &infix:<eq>); # OUTPUT: «(42)␤» 
# The resulting item is Int

sub emit§

sub emit(\value --> Nil)

If used outside any supply or react block, throws an exception emit without supply or react. Within a Supply block, it will add a message to the stream.

my $supply = supply {
  for 1 .. 10 {
$supply.tap-> $v { say "First : $v" });

See also the page for emit methods.

sub undefine§

multi undefine(Mu    \x)
multi undefine(Array \x)
multi undefine(Hash  \x)

DEPRECATED in 6.d language version and will be removed in 6.e. For Array and Hash, it will become equivalent to assigning Empty; for everything else, equivalent to assigning Nil or Empty in the case of arrays or hashes, whose use is advised.

Array manipulation§

Routines that manipulate arrays and other mutable collections.

sub pop§

multi pop(@ais raw

Calls method pop on the Positional argument. That method is supposed to remove and return the last element, or return a Failure wrapping an X::Cannot::Empty if the collection is empty.

See the documentation of the Array method for an example.

sub shift§

multi shift(@ais raw

Calls method shift on the Positional argument. That method, on a mutable collection that actually implements it (such as an Array or a Buf), is supposed to remove and return the first element, or return a Failure if the collection is empty.


say shift [1,2]; # OUTPUT: «1␤»
my @a of Int = [1];
say shift @a# OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say shift @a# ERROR: «Cannot shift from an empty Array[Int]␤» 

sub push§

multi push(\a**@b is raw)
multi push(\a, \b)

Calls method push on the first argument, passing the remaining arguments. Method push is supposed to add the provided values to the end of the collection or parts thereof. See the documentation of the Hash method for an example where indirection via this subroutine can be helpful.

The push method is supposed to flatten all arguments of type Slip. Therefore, if you want to implement a conforming method for a new collection type, it should behave as if its signature was just:

multi method push(::?CLASS:D: **@values is raw --> ::?CLASS:D)

Autovivification to an instance of the new type is provided by the default base class if the new type implements the Positional role. If the new type is not Positional, autovivification can be supported by an adding a multi method with a signature like

multi method push(::?CLASS:U: **@values is raw --> ::?CLASS:D)

sub append§

multi append(\a**@b is raw)
multi append(\a, \b)

Calls method append on the first argument, passing the remaining arguments. Method append is supposed to add the provided values to the end of the collection or parts thereof. Unlike method push, method append should follow the single argument rule. So if you want to implement a conforming method append for a new collection type, it should behave as if its signature was just:

multi method append(::?CLASS:D: +values --> ::?CLASS:D)

Similar to routine push, you may need to add a multi method if you want to support autovivification:

multi method append(::?CLASS:U: +values --> ::?CLASS:D)

The subroutine form of append can be helpful when appending to the values of a Hash. Whereas method append will silently ignore literal pairs that are interpreted as named arguments, the subroutine will throw:

my %h = => 0;
append %h=> (142);
CATCH { default { put .message } };
# OUTPUT: «Unexpected named argument 'i' passed␤»

Control routines§

Routines that change the flow of the program, maybe returning a value.

sub exit§

multi exit()
multi exit(Int(Any$status)

Exits the current process with return code $status or zero if no value has been specified. The exit value ($status), when different from zero, has to be opportunely evaluated from the process that catches it (e.g., a shell); it is the only way to return an exit code different from zero from a Main.

exit prevents the LEAVE phaser to be executed, but it will run the code in the &*EXIT variable.

exit should be used as last resort only to signal the parent process about an exit code different from zero, and not to terminate exceptionally a method or a sub: use exceptions instead.

The first call of exit in a process sets the return code, regardless of any subsequent calls to exit in the same, or any other thread.

sub done§

sub done(--> Nil)

If used outside any supply or react block, throws an exception done without supply or react. Within a Supply block, it will indicate the supply will no longer emit anything. See also documentation on method done.

my $supply = supply {
    for 1 .. 3 {
$supply.tap-> $v { say "Second : $v" }done => { say "No more" });
# OUTPUT: «Second : 1␤Second : 2␤Second : 3␤No More␤» 

The block passed to the done named argument will be run when done is called within the supply block.

As of the 2021.06 release of the Rakudo compiler, it is also possibly to supply a value with done:

sub done($value --> Nil)

The specified value will first be emitted before an argumentless done will be called.

my $supply = supply {
    for 1 .. 3 {
    done 42;  # same as: emit 42; done 
$supply.tap: -> $v { say "Val: $v" }done => { say "No more" }
# OUTPUT: OUTPUT: «Val: 1␤Val: 2␤Val: 3␤Val: 42␤No More␤» 

sub lastcall§

sub lastcall(--> True)

Truncates the current dispatch chain, which means any calls to nextsame, callsame, nextwith, and callwith will not find any of the next candidates. Note that since samewith restarts the dispatch from the start, it's not affected by the truncation of current chain with lastcall.

Consider example below. foo(6) uses nextsame when lastcall hasn't been called, and so it reaches the Any candidate. foo(2) calls nextsame as well, but since lastcall was called first, the dispatch chain was truncated and the Any candidate was not reached. The last call, foo(1), calls lastcall too, however, it then uses samewith, which isn't affected by it, and so the dispatch re-starts from scratch, hits the Int candidate with the new argument 6, and then proceeds to the Any candidate via nextsame (which isn't affected by the lastcall that was used before the samewith was called):

multi foo (Int $_{
    say "Int: $_";
    lastcall   when *.is-prime;
    nextsame   when *  %% 2;
    samewith 6 when * !%% 2;
multi foo (Any $x{ say "Any $x" }
foo 6say '----';
foo 2say '----';
foo 1;
# Int: 6 
# Any 6 
# ---- 
# Int: 2 
# ---- 
# Int: 1 
# Int: 6 
# Any 6
1 [↑] The information below is for a fully functioning sprintf implementation which hasn't been achieved yet. Formats or features not yet implemented are marked NYI.