Definition of a Raku type§

A type defines a new object by creating a type object that provides an interface to create instances of objects or to check values against. Any type object is a subclass of Any or Mu. Introspection methods are provided via inheritance from those base classes and the introspection metamethods (.^). A new type is introduced to the current scope by one of the following type declarators at compile time or with the metaobject protocol at runtime. All type names must be unique in their scope.

Default types§

If no type is provided by the user Raku assumes the type to be Any. This includes containers, base-classes, parameters and return types.

my $a = 1;
$a = Nil;
say $a.^name;
# OUTPUT: «Any␤» 
class C {};
say C.^parents(:all);
# OUTPUT: «((Any) (Mu))␤»

For containers the default type is Any but the default type constraint is Mu. Please note that binding replaces the container, not just the value. The type constraint may change in this case.

Type objects§

To test if an object is a type object, use smartmatch against a type constrained with a type smiley or .DEFINITE method:

my $a = Int;
say $a ~~ Mu:U;
# OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say not $a.DEFINITE;
# OUTPUT: «True␤» 

.DEFINITE will return True if the invocant is an instance. If it returns False, then the invocant is a type object.


Undefined objects maintain type information in Raku. Type objects are used to represent both undefinedness and the type of the undefined value. To provide a general undefined value use Any. If differentiation from Any, the default type for containers and arguments, is required use Mu.

Instances of objects created by .CREATE are by convention defined. The method .defined will return Bool::True to indicate definedness. The exceptions to that rule are Nil and Failure. Please note that any object is able to overload .defined and as such can carry additional information. Also, Raku makes a clear distinction between definedness and trueness. Many values are defined even though they carry the meaning of wrongness or emptiness. Such values are 0, Bool::False, () (empty list) and NaN.

Values can become undefined at runtime via mixin.

my Int $i = 1 but role :: { method defined { False } };
say $i // "undefined";
# OUTPUT: «undefined␤»

To test for definedness call .defined, use //, with/without and signatures.


Turning one type into another is done with coercion methods that have the same name as the target type. This convention is made mandatory by Signatures. The source type has to know how to turn itself into the target type. To allow built-in types to turn themselves into user defined types use augment or the MOP.

class C {
    has $.int;
    method this-is-c { put 'oi' x $!int ~ '' }
augment class Int {
    method C {}
my $i = 10;
# OUTPUT: «oioioioioioioioioioi‽␤»

Raku provides methods defined in Cool to convert to a target type before applying further operations. Most built-in types descend from Cool and as such may provide implicit coercion that may be undesired. It is the responsibility of the user to care about trap-free usage of those methods.

my $whatever = "123.6";
say $whatever.round;
# OUTPUT: «124␤» 
say <a b c d>.starts-with("ab");
# OUTPUT: «False␤»

Type declarators§

Type declarators introduce a new type into the given scope. Nested scopes can be separated by ::. New packages are created automatically if no such scope exists already.

class Foo::Bar::C {};
put Foo::Bar::.keys;
# OUTPUT: «C␤»

Forward declarations can be provided with a block containing only ..., the "stub" operator. The compiler will check at the end of the current scope if the type is defined.

class C {...}
# many lines later 
class C { has $.attr }


The class declarator creates a compile time construct that is compiled into a type object. The latter is a simple Raku object and provides methods to construct instances by executing initializers and sub methods to fill all attributes declared in a class, and any parent class, with values. Initializers can be provided with the declaration of attributes or in constructors. It's the responsibility of the Metamodel::ClassHOW to know how to run them. This is the only magic part of building objects in Raku. The default parent type is Any, which in turn inherits from Mu. The latter provides the default constructor .new which is named like this by convention. Aside from this, .new does not carry any special meaning nor is treated in any special way.

For more information how to use classes see the Classes and objects tutorial.


The type introduced by class can be extended with infix:<but> at runtime. The original type is not modified, instead a new type object is returned and can be stored in a container that type checks successful against the original type or the role that is mixed in.

class A {}
role R { method m { say 'oi‽' } }
my R $A = A but R;
my $a1 = $;
say [$A ~~ R$a1 ~~ R];
# OUTPUT: «oi‽␤[True True]␤»



To test if a given type object is a class, test the metaobject method .HOW against Metamodel::ClassHOW.

class C {};
say C.HOW ~~ Metamodel::ClassHOW;
# OUTPUT: «True␤»

Private attributes§

Private Attributes are addressed with any of the twigils $!, @! and %!. They do not have public accessor methods generated automatically. As such they can not be altered from outside the class they are defined in.

class C {
    has $!priv;
    submethod BUILD { $!priv = 42 }
say (.name.package.has_accessorfor^attributes;
# OUTPUT: «($!priv (C) False)␤»


The method declarator defines objects of type Method and binds them to the provided name in the scope of a class. Methods in a class are has scoped by default. Methods that are our scoped are not added to the method cache by default and as such can not be called with the accessor sigil $.. Call them with their fully qualified name and the invocant as the first argument.

Inheritance and multis§

A normal method in a subclass does not compete with multis of a parent class.

class A {
    multi method m(Int $i){ say 'Int' }
    multi method m(int $i){ say 'int' }
class B is A {
    method m(Int $i){ say 'B::Int' }
my int $i;$i);
# OUTPUT: «B::Int␤»

Only method§

To explicitly state that a method is not a multi method use the only method declarator.

class C {
    only method m {};
    multi method m {};
# OUTPUT: «X::Comp::AdHoc: Cannot have a multi candidate for 'm' when an only method is also in the package 'C'␤» 

submethod BUILD§

The submethod BUILD is (indirectly) called by .bless. It is meant to set private and public attributes of a class and receives all named attributes passed into .bless. The default constructor .new defined in Mu is the method that invokes it. Given that public accessor methods are not available in BUILD, you must use private attribute notation instead.

class C {
    has $.attr;
    submethod BUILD (:$attr = 42{
        $!attr = $attr
    multi method new($positional{
        self.bless(:attr($positional), |%_)
# OUTPUT: « => 42)␤ 
# => "answer")␤»

Fallback method §

A method with the special name FALLBACK will be called when other means to resolve the name produce no result. The first argument holds the name and all following arguments are forwarded from the original call. Multi methods and sub-signatures are supported.

class Magic {
    method FALLBACK ($name|c(IntStr)) {
    put "$name called with parameters {c.raku}"  }
# OUTPUT: «simsalabim called with parameters ⌈\(42, "answer")⌋␤»

Reserved method names§

Some built-in introspection methods are actually special syntax provided by the compiler, namely WHAT, WHO, HOW and VAR. Declaring methods with those names will silently fail. A dynamic call will work, what allows to call methods from foreign objects.

class A {
    method WHAT { "ain't gonna happen" }
say;    # OUTPUT: «(A)␤» 
say"WHAT"() # OUTPUT: «ain't gonna happen␤» 

Methods in package scope§

Any our scoped method will be visible in the package scope of a class.

class C {
    our method packaged {};
    method loose {}
say C::.keys
# OUTPUT: «(&packaged)␤»

Setting attributes with namesake variables and methods§

Instead of writing attr => $attr or :attr($attr), you can save some typing if the variable (or method call) you're setting the attribute with shares the name with the attribute:

class A { has $.i = 42 };
class B {
    has $.i = "answer";
    method m() {$.i}
    #                  ^^^^  Instead of i => $.i or :i($.i) 
my $a =;
say $a.i# OUTPUT: «answer␤»

Since $.i method call is named i and the attribute is also named i, Raku lets us shortcut. The same applies to :$var, :$!private-attribute, :&attr-with-code-in-it, and so on.

trait is nodal§

Marks a List method to indicate to hyperoperator to not descend into inner Iterables to call this method. This trait generally isn't something end users would be using, unless they're subclassing or augmenting core List type.

In order to demonstrate the difference consider the following examples, the first using a method (elems) that is nodal and the second using a method (Int) which is not nodal.

say ((1.0"2"3e0), [^4], '5'.elems# OUTPUT: «(3, 4, 1)␤» 
say ((1.0"2"3e0), [^4], '5'.Int    # OUTPUT: «((1 2 3) [0 1 2 3] 5)␤»


multi trait_mod:<handles>(Attribute:D $target$thunk)

The trait handles applied to an attribute of a class will delegate all calls to the provided method name to the method with the same name of the attribute. The object referenced by the attribute must be initialized. A type constraint for the object that the call is delegated to can be provided.

class A      { method m(){ 'A::m has been called.' } }
class B is A { method m(){ 'B::m has been called.' } }
class C {
    has A $.delegate handles 'm';
    method new($delegate){ self.bless(delegate => $delegate}
say; # OUTPUT: «B::m has been called.␤»

Instead of a method name, a Pair (for renaming), a list of names or Pairs, a Regex or a Whatever can be provided. In the latter case existing methods, both in the class itself and its inheritance chain, will take precedence. If even local FALLBACKs should be searched, use a HyperWhatever.

class A {
    method m1(){ 'A::m1 has been called.' }
    method m2(){ 'A::m2 has been called.' }
class C {
    has $.delegate handles <m1 m2> =
say OUTPUT: «A::m2 has been called.␤» 
class D {
    has $.delegate handles /m\d/ =
say OUTPUT: «A::m1 has been called.␤» 
class E {
    has $.delegate handles (em1 => 'm1'=
say OUTPUT: «A::m1 has been called.␤» 
class F {
  # Delegates all methods from A 
  has A $.delegate handles *;
say OUTPUT: «A::m1 has been called.␤» 
say OUTPUT: «A::m2 has been called.␤»

trait is§

multi trait_mod:<is>(Mu:U $childMu:U $parent)

The trait is accepts a type object to be added as a parent class of a class in its definition. To allow multiple inheritance the trait can be applied more than once. Adding parents to a class will import their methods into the target class. If the same method name occurs in multiple parents, the first added parent will win.

If no is trait is provided the default of Any will be used as a parent class. This forces all Raku objects to have the same set of basic methods to provide an interface for introspection and coercion to basic types.

class A {
    multi method from-a(){ 'A::from-a' }
# OUTPUT: «(Any, Mu)␤» 
class B {
    method from-b(){ 'B::from-b ' }
    multi method from-a(){ 'B::from-A' }
class C is A is B {}
# OUTPUT: «A::from-a␤»

is rw§

sub trait_mod:<is>(Mu:U $type:$rw!)

The trait is rw on a class will create writable accessor methods on all public attributes of that class.

class C is rw {
    has $.a;
my $c = = 42;
say $c# OUTPUT: «42␤»

trait is required§

multi trait_mod:<is>(Attribute $attr:$required!)
multi trait_mod:<is>(Parameter:D $param:$required!)

Marks a class or roles attribute as required. If the attribute is not initialized at object construction time throws X::Attribute::Required.

class Correct {
    has $.attr is required;
say => 42);
# OUTPUT: « => 42)␤» 
class C {
    has $.attr is required;
CATCH { default { say .^name => .Str } }
# OUTPUT: «X::Attribute::Required => The attribute '$!attr' is required, but you did not provide a value for it.␤»

Note a class with a private attribute will give the same error:

class D {
    has $!attr is required;
CATCH { default { say .^name => .Str } }
# OUTPUT: «X::Attribute::Required => The attribute '$!attr' is required, but you did not provide a value for it.␤»

You can provide a reason why it's required as an argument to is required

class Correct {
    has $.attr is required("it's so cool")
# OUTPUT: «The attribute '$!attr' is required because it's so cool,␤but you did not provide a value for it.␤» 

trait hides§

The trait hides provides inheritance without being subject to re-dispatching.

class A {
    method m { say 'i am hidden' }
class B hides A {
    method m { nextsame }
    method n { self.A::m }
};;  # No output;  # OUTPUT: «i am hidden␤»

The trait is hidden allows a class to hide itself from re-dispatching.

class A is hidden {
    method m { say 'i am hidden' }
class B is A {
    method m { nextsame }
    method n { self.A::m }
} No output OUTPUT: «i am hidden␤»

Classes declared with is hidden also generate slightly different method signatures. To facilitate re-dispatch, typical methods are automatically provided with an extra *%_ parameter that captures extra named arguments. Because classes declared with is hidden don't participate in re-dispatch, their methods don't receive this extra parameter.

trait trusts§

To allow one class to access the private methods of another class use the trait trusts. A forward declaration of the trusted class may be required.

class B {...};
class A {
    trusts B;
    has $!foo;
    method !foo { return-rw $!foo }
    method raku { " => $!foo)" }
class B {
    has A $.a .= new;
    method change { $!a!A::foo = 42self }
# OUTPUT: « => => 42))␤»

Augmenting a class§

To add methods and attributes to a class at compile time use augment in front of a class definition fragment. The compiler will demand the pragmas use MONKEY-TYPING or use MONKEY early in the same scope. Please note that there may be performance implications, hence the pragmas.

use MONKEYaugment class Str {
    method mark(Any :$set){
        state $mark //= $set$mark
my $s = "42";
$s.mark(set => "answer");
say $s.mark
# OUTPUT: «answer␤»

There are few limitations of what can be done inside the class fragment. One of them is the redeclaration of a method or sub into a multi. Using added attributes is not implemented. Please note that adding a multi candidate that differs only in its named parameters will add that candidate behind the already defined one and as such it won't be picked by the dispatcher.


Roles are class fragments, which allow the definition of interfaces that are shared by classes. The role declarator also introduces a type object that can be used for type checks. Roles can be mixed into classes and objects at runtime and compile time. The role declarator returns the created type object thus allowing the definition of anonymous roles and in-place mixins.

role Serialize {
    method to-string { self.Str }
    method to-number { self.Num }
class A does Serialize {}
class B does Serialize {}
my Serialize @list;
say @list».to-string;
# OUTPUT: «[A<57192848> B<57192880>]␤»

Use ... as the only element of a method body to declare a method to be abstract. Any class getting such a method mixed in has to overload it. If the method is not overloaded before the end of the compilation unit X::Comp::AdHoc will be thrown.

EVAL 'role R { method overload-this(){...} }; class A does R {}; ';
CATCH { default { say .^name' '.Str } }
# OUTPUT: «X::Comp::AdHoc Method 'overload-this' must be implemented by A because it is required by roles: R.␤»


A role can be used instead of a class to create objects. Since roles can't exist at runtime, a class of the same name is created that will type check successful against the role.

role R { method m { say 'oi‽' } };^mro.say;
# OUTPUT: «((R) (Any) (Mu))␤» 
# OUTPUT: «Perl6::Metamodel::ClassHOW␤» 
say ~~ R;
# OUTPUT: «True␤»

trait does§

The trait does can be applied to roles and classes providing compile time mixins. To refer to a role that is not defined yet, use a forward declaration. The type name of the class with mixed in roles does not reflect the mixin, a type check does. If methods are provided in more than one mixed in role, the method that is defined first takes precedence. A list of roles separated by comma can be provided. In this case conflicts will be reported at compile time.

role R2 {...};
role R1 does R2 {};
role R2 {};
class C does R1 {};
say [C ~~ R1C ~~ R2];
# OUTPUT: «[True True]␤»

For runtime mixins see but and does.


Roles can be provided with parameters in-between [] behind a roles name. Type captures are supported.

role R[$d{ has $.a = $d };
class C does R["default"{ };
my $c =;
say $c;
# OUTPUT: « => "default")␤»

Parameters can have type constraints, where clauses are not supported for types but can be implemented via subsets.

class A {};
class B {};
subset A-or-B where * ~~ A|B;
role R[A-or-B ::T{};

Default parameters can be provided.

role R[$p = fail("Please provide a parameter to role R")] {};
my $i = 1 does R;
CATCH { default { say .^name''.Str} }
# OUTPUT: «X::AdHoc: Could not instantiate role 'R':␤Please provide a parameter to role R␤»

As type constraints§

Roles can be used as type constraints wherever a type is expected. If a role is mixed in with does or but, its type-object is added to the type-object list of the object in question. If a role is used instead of a class (using auto-punning), the auto-generated class' type-object, of the same name as the role, is added to the inheritance chain.

role Unitish[$unit = fail('Please provide a SI unit quantifier as a parameter to the role Unitish')] {
    has $.SI-unit-symbol = $unit;
    method gist {
        given self {
            # ... 
            when * < 1 { return self * 1000 ~ 'm' ~ $.SI-unit-symbol }
            when * < 1000 { return self ~ $.SI-unit-symbol }
            when * < 1_000_000 { return self / 1_000 ~ 'k' ~ $.SI-unit-symbol }
            # ... 
role SI-second   does Unitish[<s>{}
role SI-meter    does Unitish[<m>{}
role SI-kilogram does Unitish[<g>{}
sub postfix:<s>(Numeric $num{ ($numdoes SI-second }
sub postfix:<m>(Numeric $num{ ($numdoes SI-meter }
sub postfix:<g>(Numeric $num{ ($numdoes SI-kilogram }
sub postfix:<kg>(Numeric $num){ ($num * 1000does SI-kilogram }
constant g = 9.806_65;
role SI-Newton does Unitish[<N>{}
multi N(SI-kilogram $kgSI-meter $mSI-second $s --> SI-Newton ){ ($kg * ($m / $s²)) does SI-Newton }
multi N(SI-kilogram $kg --> SI-Newton)                            { ($kg * gdoes SI-Newton }
say [75kg, N(75kg)];
# OUTPUT: «[75kg 735.49875kN]␤» 
say [(75kg).^nameN(75kg).^name];
# OUTPUT: «[Int+{SI-kilogram} Rat+{SI-Newton}]␤» 


Enumerations provide constant key-value-pairs with an associated type. Any key is of that type and injected as a symbol into the current scope. If the symbol is used, it is treated as a constant expression and the symbol is replaced with the value of the enum-pair. Any Enumeration inherits methods from the role Enumeration. Complex expressions for generating key-value pairs are not supported. In general, an enum is a Map whose elements have the Enumeration role mixed in; this role includes, for each element, an index which creates an order on the map.

Stringification of the symbol, which is done automatically in string context and is exactly equal to its name, which is also the key of the enum-pair.

enum Names ( name1 => 1name2 => 2 );
say name1' 'name2# OUTPUT: «name1 name2␤» 
say name1.value' 'name2.value# OUTPUT: «1 2␤»

Comparing symbols will use type information and the value of the enum-pair. As value types Num and Str are supported.

enum Names ( name1 => 1name2 => 2 );
sub same(Names $aNames $b){
   $a eqv $b
say same(name1name1); # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say same(name1name2); # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
my $a = name1;
say $a ~~ Names# OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $a.^name;    # OUTPUT: «Names␤»

All keys have to be of the same type.

enum Mass ( mg => 1/1000=> 1/1kg => 1000/1 );
say Mass.enums;
# OUTPUT: « => 1, kg => 1000, mg => 0.001))␤»

And you can use any kind of symbol:

enum Suit <♣ ♦ ♥ ♠>;

As long as you refer to that symbol using the full syntax:

say Suit::<># OUTPUT: «♣␤» 
my $heart = '';
say Suit::«$heart»; # OUTPUT: «♥␤» 

Attempting to access unicode enum keys without said syntax will result in an error:

say ♣ ; # OUTPUT: «(exit code 1) ===SORRY!===␤Argument to "say" seems to be malformed… 

If no value is given Int will be assumed as the values type and incremented by one per key starting at zero. As enum key types Int, Num, Rat and Str are supported.

enum Numbers <one two three four>;
say Numbers.enums;
# OUTPUT: « => 3, one => 0, three => 2, two => 1))␤»

A different starting value can be provided.

enum Numbers «:one(1two three four»;
say Numbers.enums;
# OUTPUT: « => 4, one => 1, three => 3, two => 2))␤»

You can also do this with the () form of the initializer, but will need to quote keys that do not have a value:

enum Numbers (
  one => 1,

Enums can also be anonymous, with the only difference with named enums being that you cannot use it in Signatures or to declare variables.

my $e = enum <one two three>;
say two;       # OUTPUT: «two␤» 
say one.^name# OUTPUT: «␤» 
say $e.^name;  # OUTPUT: «Map␤»

There are various methods to get access to the keys and values of the symbols that have been defined. All of them turn the values into Str, which may not be desirable. By treating the enum as a package, we can get a list of types for the keys.

enum E <one two>;
my @keys = E::.values;
say *.raku;
# OUTPUT: «(E::one E::two)␤» or «(E::two E::one)␤»

Note that, as the output above indicates, the iteration order of enums is not guaranteed. This is because the methods that "iterate over" an enum do not iterate directly on the enum (which, after all, is not iterable). Instead, these iteration methods create a Map with the same keys and values as the enum. Because Maps provide only unordered, iteration the iteration methods on an enum do as well. If you need to iterate an enum in order, you can sort on its value, for example with E.enums.sort(*.value).

With the use of () parentheses, an enum can be defined using any arbitrary dynamically defined list. The list should consist of Pair objects:

For example, in file config we have:

a 1
b 2

We can create an enum using it with this code:

enum ConfigValues ('config'{ my ($key$value= $_.words$key => $value }));
say ConfigValues.enums;          # OUTPUT: « => 1, b => 2))␤» 

Firstly, we read lines from config file, split every line using words method and return resulting pair for every line, thus creating a List of Pairs.

Typing Enums§

When declaring enums with an explicit scope, a type may be provided, which will be used to typecheck the enum's values:

my Str enum Foo (foo => 'foo');

All enum pairs are typed as Enumeration. In addition, when the enum values are typed as Numeric, Stringy, or a combination of these two types, enum pairs also do the NumericEnumeration, StringyEnumeration, and NumericStringyEnumeration roles respectively. These simply determine how enum pairs get stringified with the Str method.

Given that these types are roles, naturally you can provide your own roles when declaring an enum, which allows you to give them custom behavior and state. For example, to make it simpler to check if a number matches a flag in a bitmask enum, you could write a BitmaskEnumeration role with an ACCEPTS method to handle this via smartmatching:

role BitmaskEnumeration {
    multi method ACCEPTS(::?CLASS:D: Int:D $value --> Bool:D{
        so $value +& self.value
enum Flags does BitmaskEnumeration (
    FLAG_FOO => 0b001,
    FLAG_BAR => 0b010,
    FLAG_BAZ => 0b100,
say 0b111 ~~ FLAG_FOO & FLAG_BAR & FLAG_BAZ# OUTPUT: «True␤» 


To test if a given type object is an enum, test the metaobject method .HOW against Metamodel::EnumHOW or simply test against the Enumeration role.

enum E(<a b c>);
say E.HOW ~~ Metamodel::EnumHOW# OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say E ~~ Enumeration;            # OUTPUT: «True␤»


See the Enumeration role for available methods on enum types and enum-pairs.


If you want to coerce the value of an enum element to its proper enum object, use the coercer with the name of the enum:

my enum A (sun => 42mon => 72);
A(72).pair.say;   # OUTPUT: «mon => 72␤» 
A(1000).say# OUTPUT: «(A)␤»

The last example shows what happens if there is no enum-pair that includes that as a value.


Modules are usually one or more source files that expose Raku constructs, such as classes, roles, grammars, subroutines and variables. Modules are usually used for distributing Raku code as libraries which can be used in another Raku program.

For a full explanation see Modules.


Packages are nested namespaces of named program elements. Modules, classes and grammars are all types of package.

For a full explanation see Packages.


Grammars are a specific type of class intended for parsing text. Grammars are composed of rules, tokens and regexes which are actually methods, since grammars are classes.

For a full explanation see Grammars.


A subset declares a new type that will re-dispatch to its base type. If a where clause is supplied any assignment will be checked against the given code object.

subset Positive of Int where * > -1;
my Positive $i = 1;
$i = -42;
CATCH { default { put .^name,''.Str } }
# OUTPUT: «X::TypeCheck::Assignment: Type check failed in assignment to $i; expected Positive but got Int (-42)␤»

Subsets can be used in signatures, e.g. by typing the output:

subset Foo of List where (Int,Str);
sub a($a$b--> Foo{ $a$b }
# Only a List with the first element being an Int and the second a Str will pass the type check. 
a(1"foo");  # passes 
a("foo"1);  # fails

If you skip the base type, it defaults to Any. So the following two are equivalent:

subset A-or-B where * ~~ A | B
subset A-or-B of Any where * ~~ A | B

Subsets can be anonymous, allowing inline placements where a subset is required but a name is neither needed nor desirable.

my enum E1 <A B>;
my enum E2 <C D>;
sub g(@a where { .all ~~ subset :: where E1|E2 } ) {
    say @a
# OUTPUT: «[A C]␤»

Subsets can be used to check types dynamically, which can be useful in conjunction with require.

require ::('YourModule');
subset C where ::('YourModule::C');

Versioning, authorship, and API version.§

When you declare a type you can pass it a version, author, and/or API number, all of which you can subsequently introspect. The versioning, authorship, and/or API number of a type can be applied via the adverbs :ver<>, :auth<>, and :api<> respectively. All of them take a string as argument; for :ver the string is converted to a Version object, and for :api the string is converted into an allomorph IntStr object. :auth generally takes the form hosting:ID, as in github:github-user or gitlab:gitlab-user.

To query the version, author, and API version of a type use .^ver, .^auth, and .^api respectively, as illustrated down below by querying a class.

class C:ver<4.2.3>:auth<github:jane>:api<1> {}
say C.^ver;       # OUTPUT: «v4.2.3␤» 
say C.^ OUTPUT: «(4 2 3)␤» 
say C.^auth;      # OUTPUT: «github:jane␤» 
say C.^api;       # OUTPUT: «1␤»

In a similar fashion, roles, grammars, and modules can be queried about the aforementioned information.